The antecedents of corporate social and environmental responsibility discourse in Pakistan: Multiple theoretical perspectives

Muhammad Farhan Basheer, Saqib Muneer, Muhammad Atif Nawaz & Zubair Ahmad

Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan & Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan

The primary purpose of the study is to explore the antecedents of corporate social and environmental responsibilities discourse practices in Pakistan. The industry sensitivity, government shareholding, block holder ownership, print media coverage, environmental monitoring programs, and strategic posture are examined as antecedents of corporate social and environmental responsibility practices. A multidimensional theoretical perspective namely stakeholder theory (ST), institutional theory (IT), agency theory (PAT), and legitimacy theory (LT) is used to conceptualize the phenomena. All the four of perspective theories (positive accounting theory, legitimacy theory, stakeholder theory, and institutional theory) claim that there are "pressures" that impact the organization. How much "pressures" are recognized, managed or satisfied differs from one perspective of theory to the other. To estimate the data, this study uses three sets of panel data models, i.e., the pooled ordinary least squares model (POLS) or constant coefficients model, fixed effects (FEM or least squares dummy variable/LSDV model) and random-effects models. The final sample is comprising of 173 firms over eight years from 2011 to 2017. The firms listed in PSX are included in the sample. Overall the findings of the study have shown agreement with the proposed results. However, the study has provided more support to the institutional theory and stakeholder theory.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Stakeholders Theory, Agency Theory, Pakistan.


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